Yeast Cells and Adenine-Requiring Auxotrophs

4. In yeast, wild type colonies are white. Adenine-requiring auxotrophs (ad) are red when
grown on medium containing limiting amounts of adenine. This is due to the accumulation
of a red precursor in adenine biosynthesis. If cells from an ad strain are plated on minimal
medium most cells don't produce colonies but two rare types of "revertant" colonies are
produced, one type white in colour, and the other type with a "rose" colour. Strains grown
from such colonies were crossed to wild type of opposite mating type are yielded the
following results:
white "revertant" X wild type (also white) Æ all white auxotrophic progeny
rose "revertant" X wild type (white) Æ ½ white, ¼ rose, ¼ red
(a) What is the difference between the genetic mechanisms that produced the white and
rose colonies?
(b) Show the genotypes of the parents and progeny in the above crosses.

5. A lab population of Drosophila was started with a small number of males and females
from the standard pure line called Oregon R. After several months the population had
increased to hundreds of thousands of flies. Careful screening of individual flies under
the microscope revealed many different mutant phenotypes. Three examples were:
1. A female with forked bristles (wild type is unforked)
2. A female with apricot eyes (wild type is red)
3. A male with curled wings (wild type is straight)

Crosses were made with the following results:
Forked female X wild type male
F1: all wild type
F2: ¾ wild type (males and females)
¼ forked (males and females)
Apricot female X wild type male
F1: males all apricot; females all wild type
F2: ½ wild type (males and females)
½ apricot (males and females)
Curled male X wild type female
F1: ½ curled (males and females)
½ wild type (males and females)

(a) Explain what the results tell us about the nature of these three mutations (include
genotypes for all individuals involved in the crosses).
(b) Speculate on whether the mutations could have occurred in the individuals chosen, or
in their immediate or distant ancestors.

9. The human genetic disease tuberous sclerosis (TS) is inherited as an autosomal
dominant. Polycistic kidney disease (PKD) is also inherited as an autosomal dominant.
Both diseases are dominant because of haplo-insufficiency; in other words in
heterozygotes the one wild-type allele is insufficient for normal cell function. The genes
concerned are closely linked on the short arm of chromosome 16. Rare cases have been
reported of people expressing the symptoms of both TS and PKD. In these cases the two
diseases are inherited together as one unit through the generations.
(a) Propose a possible mechanism for the origin of the people who have both diseases,
and explain how they are inherited together.
(b) How would you test your idea?

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...ink this is a concern.

The second colony (rose) probably had an entirely different sort of mutation: a gain of function mutation in a different gene. Such a mutation could involve the activation of another adenine-producing pseudogene, or something else that began to use up part of the red precursor produced in the adenine synthesis pathway. Since there are two genes now, I'll separate them with a /. I'll use G as the symbol for the new gain of function mutation.

ad / G X + / +
Producing a diploid cell with the genotype ad + / G +
This diploid cell will then produce the following haploid cells after meiosis:
ad / G -- Rose colour
ad / + -- Red
+ / G -- White
+ / + -- White

Since all these types of progeny have equal chances of occurring (we get to assume that there is no linkage), we get the proportions asked for in the question.

5. A lab population of Drosophila was started with a small number of males and females
from the standard pure line called Oregon R. After several months the population had
increased to hundreds of thousands of flies. Careful screening of individual flies under
the microscope revealed many different mutant phenotypes. Three examples were:
1. A female with forked bristles (wild type is unforked)
2. A female with apricot eyes (wild type is red)
3. A male with curled wings (wild type is straight)

Crosses were made with the following results:
Forked female X wild type male
F1: all wild type
F2: ¾ wild type (males and females)
¼ forked (males ...