A description of rare and normal blood types.

Our blood is made up of plasma (water, nutrients, gases, wastes, hormones and proteins), white blood cells (leukocytes) for immunity, platlets (cell fragments to form blood clots when we are cut) and red blood cells (erythrocytes). Red blood cells make our blood red because they contain hemoglobin which exchange gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide between the tissue and the lungs. Hemoglobin contains iron which gives us the red colour. Your car rusts because it contains iron and rust is brown. It is the same reason your blood turns brown after it is dry because it too "rusts" or oxidizes. The reason for different blood types is due to antigens, ABO groups, and the Rh factor.

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...an invader (bacteria). Different people have different antigens or "flags" for their red blood cells and some people have exactly the same. This was first realized in Egypt thousands of years ago when "doctors" tried to put sheep blood into people who had lost lots of blood due to lion attacks or accidents. For some odd reason most people died so they decided animal blood was different from people blood. In 1665 Richard Lower successfully transferred blood from one dog to another.

In time doctors had some success with transfusions to patients, usually from their relatives. Currently, blood transfusions are common practice for traumatic injuries. However, only in the last fifty to sixty years have doctors been able to know which type of blood type matches another and divided them into groups based on particular "flags".
There are four general Groups (A, B, AB, and O) which are called the ABO System of identification. Each letter represents a certain type of antigen (flag) present on the red blood cells. ...