Cellular Secondary Messengers: Calcium, IP3 and cAMP

Calcium (Ca), IP3, and cAMP are very different second messengers. In what ways are their mechanisms of action similar? In what ways are they different?

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...ia conversion of ATP by adenylate cyclase (AC). The newly formed cAMP will elevate downstream kinase activity such as that of PKA which phosphorylates many essential target molecules. If however the α-subunit acts through Phospholipase C (PLC) two effectors will be seen in the formation of IP3 and diacylglyceral (DAG) from the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). DAG will elevate kinase activity but in the form of PKC. IP3 release from its association with the plasma membrane bound fatty acids/glycerol will act on the receptors of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum to elicit a large calcium release which will also augment or ...