The physiological roles of hormones.

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What are the physiological roles of hormones?

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...nergy or growth needs of the individual.

3. Hormones affect contraction, relaxation, and metabolism of muscle. They cause contraction and relaxation of vascular and gastro-intestinal smooth muscle as well as genital tract musculature such as the uterus and oviducts. Hormones also affect cardiac and skeletal muscle contractile properties. Some steroid hormones profoundly affect anabolic and catabolic processes within muscle.

4. Hormones control reproductive processes, such as gonadal differentiation, maturation, and gametogenesis.

5. Hormones are stimulatory or inhibitory to cellular proliferation and thus they affect growth.

6. The excretion and reabsorption of inorganic cations and anions are regulated by hormones. Sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate ions are particularly affected.

7. Hormones have a permissive action on the effects of other hormones; ...