Networking and Telecommunications

Use short answers to explain the difference between:
· Synchronous and asynchronous
· Analog and digital
· XON and XOFF
· Simplex and duplex
· Serial and parallel transmission
· Baseband and broadband
· Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
· Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
· Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP)

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...e. Digital signals can have only 2 possible values, like on-off, high-low, 0-1. They cannot take intermediate values. That is either highest or lowest values. In general cases, the strength of these types of signal does not get affected by noise and other distortion factors.

(See attached for figure)

XON and XOFF

Xon: is a protocol for controlling the flow of data between computers and other devices on an asynchronous connection. The 'X' in the word stands for transmitter. Xon command is use to indicate the sender that it can start the transmission now. Or in other words, it sets the transmitter on. The bit configuration of Xon is the same as the ASCII value of Ctrl-Q.

Xoff: is a protocol for controlling the flow of data between computers and other devices on an asynchronous connection. The 'X' in the word stands for transmitter. Xoff command is use to indicate the sender that it should now stop/pause the transmission. Or in other words, it sets the transmitter off. The bit configuration of Xoff is the same as the ASCII value of Ctrl-S.

Simplex and Duplex

Simplex and duplex, both are a way of doing communication, but there is a one major difference between the 2, and that is given below.

1.) Simplex: The simplex communication is always uni-directional, and that is you can either transmit data or receive data.
2.) Duplex: The duplex communications is always bi-directional (2-way), and that is the one can do both transmission and receiving.
There are 2 types of duplex communications:
a.) Half Duplex: In this case both the transmission and reception occurs, but that cannot happen at the same time, that is only one can be an active sender at a particular point of time, once the sender A is done transmitting the B can now take up the role of sender and start transmitting.
b.) Full duplex: In this case, both the transmission and reception occurs and that too simultaneously, that is at one point of time both of the parties can transmit and receive also.

Serial and Parallel Transmission

Serial transmission refers to a transmitting technique in which data is sent as a single stream of data, that is one after the other. So, in this data goes out sequentially. Serial communications are a single communications channel for both the transmission and the ...