Figure out the root and the surface problem this action was intended to solve

Under the Radical Reconstruction plan, Southern voters were required to take the Ironclad Oath.

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...verarching problem was the desire to find a way for the Confederate states to be readmitted into the Union, while preventing any further violence. Subsequently, each state had to have a majority of its voters take the "ironclad oath" before that state would be allowed to rejoin the United States and its citizens be granted the right to ...