The use of case endings in Latin.

What are cases and why are they used in Latin?

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... that noun within the sentence.

If the noun has an ending which indicates the nominative case, that noun is the subject of the sentence (or clause).

If it has an ending indicating the vocative case, that noun is being addressed.

If it has an ending indicating the accusative case, that noun is the direct object of the sentence (or clause).

If it has an ending indicating the genitive case, this can be understood to mean "of" (possession ...