Rules of Inference (Part III: Modus Tollens)

Many first-year logic students have heard of the "rules of inference"; in fact, many students may have even heard of a few. A typically standard way to continue covering those rules after mentioning Modus Ponens is by discussing Modus Tollens. However, what does this latter phrase mean? What rule do...

Rules of Inference (Part II: Modus Ponens)

Many first-year logic students have heard of the "rules of inference"; in fact, many students may have even heard of a few. A good place to start for covering those rules is Modus Ponens. However, what does this phrase mean? What rule does it denote? Here is a concise overview of the most well-known...

Rules of Inference (Part I: Overview)

Many first-year logic students have heard of the "rules of inference"; in fact, many students may have even heard of a few. But would you be able to define the phrase? Would you be able to say how many of these rules exist? And would you be able to name each one? Here are the nine major rules, clear...

Does distribution apply to E-propositions?

Distribution is a property of a categorical proposition. But what kinds of propositions can express distribution? Is the quality only limited to one kind of proposition?

Categorical Propositions: O-proposition

Categorical Propositions have four basic forms. Of those four, the final one is the "O-proposition." What exactly is an "O-proposition"? How does it usually look? What does it achieve?

Categorical Propositions: E-proposition

Categorical Propositions have four basic forms. One of those is the "E-proposition." What exactly is an "E-proposition"? How does it usually look? What does it achieve?

Categorical Propositions in Logic (Part 3)

Categorical Propositions have four basic forms. One of those is the "A-proposition." What exactly is an "A-proposition"? How does it usually look? What does it achieve?

The challenges of becoming a critical thinker

What are some of the challenges of becoming a critical thinker in our contemporary world? In what ways do these challenges also make it important to develop critical thinking skills?

Advertisements and Fallacy Discussion

Locate a piece of advertising that demonstrates one (or more) of the deductive or inductive fallacies listed below. - Describe the advertisement example that you located. - Identify the fallacy you observed in the advertisement and describe how this is an example of this type of fallacy. - Expl...

Enthymemes in Everyday Life

Identify an example of an enthymeme you encountered this week in the media or in a conversation. - Create a syllogism based on the enthymeme. - Determine whether the syllogism is valid or invalid and explain why. - If invalid, identify the reasoning error that is present in the syllogism

Spotting Fallacies: Article Study

Assignment: Step 1: Find one example of a fallacy. Choose one of the articles below. What's the Difference Between Terry and Terri? By Terence Jeffrey The Organic Difference by Zazel Lovén The Science of Satire by Mahzarin Banaji Arrest Everybody by Jacob Sullum Why Legalizing Marijuana Ma...

Inductive Argumentation

Inductive arguments take specific premises to make general conclusions. A strong inductive argument is most probably the case, and a weak inductive argument is most likely not the case. A causal inductive argument is very similar. It works like this: When X happens then Y happens. X probably causes ...

Argument Construction Against Alcohol Consumption

Construct an argument on one of the following: • Should college campuses ban alcohol on campus? • Should U.S. citizens be eating meat? • Should the driving age be raised to 21? List at least ten different premises that relate to the issue. Eliminate some weak premises. Choose two...

Experiment and Expertise

Malcolm Gladwell is a popular current author who recently wrote a book called Outliers. In his book, he claims that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that before someone becomes an expert at something, they must put in 10,000 hours of practice. Gladwell bases this claim primarily on the work ...

Nonverbal Language as Circumstantial Evidence

In 2004, Scott Peterson was convicted of killing his wife, Laci, and their unborn son, Conner. There was no conclusive proof that he committed the crime, only circumstantial evidence. The jurors said a major factor in their decision was Peterson's nonverbal communication, his lack of emotional respo...

Secrets of the Brain Review

Your answers should include a description of the patient's problem (both the symptoms and the underlying cause). See the attachment.

Logic and Truthfulness for LEAST Sense

Please answer both questions 1. Which of the ways of knowing with people like Descartes, William James, William Cliford etc) makes the LEAST sense? Why? 2. How would you describe your own way of assessing truth claims when made by: a) friends, b) media (radio, television, magazines), and c) sch...

Basic Modalities of Logic

I have trouble with the following: Three dichotomies of modality 1) Metaphysical: necessary v. contingent 2) Epistemological: a priori v. a posteriori 3) Linguistics: analytic v. synthetic

Reasoning and Critical Thinking Explanations

Hello, I need help with answering some questions relating to critical thinking. If you could, please provide examples along with the explanations so that I can have a better understanding. 1) What roles do ethical and emotional appeals play in an argument? 2) Is there such a thing as an over-rel...

Language Capacity: Human and Non-Human

Does empirical scholarly evidence suggest a quantitative or a qualitative difference in language capacity between humans and non-human primates? Please do not copy and paste or quote. Please give scholarly references to support your position. Thank you.

Features of a hypothesis

I would like to under what specific features of a hypothesis do each of the criteria adequacy- testability, fruitfulness, scope, simplicity, and conservatism try to measure?

Sociocentrism or egocentrism

Identify a time where you, someone you know, or a group of people have displayed sociocentrism or egocentrism. Explain how the people acted, as well as the improper thinking that led to these actions. Finally, explain what could have been done differently and list some specific ways that these forms...

What Gives Human Life Meaning?

What gives human life meaning? I think this is subject to my own observations and experiences in how I comprehend the meaning of life which will be different than anyone else's. Knowing this above, what is your opinion based on observations and experience, and would you rely on any others? W...

The Classic Versions of the Ontological Argument

Looking for a simple answer to figure out the classic version of the Ontological Argument: 1. God is the most perfect ('the greatest') being conceivable. 2. It is more perfect ('greater') to exist than not to exist. 3. Therefore, God must exist. In the late-18th-century Critique of Pure Re...