Psychological Theories, Program Policies, Justice

I am seeking help with explaining the gender-specific policy and programs for impact on lowering the rate of recidivism of female offenders. Evaluate procedural or moral justice. In addition to, justifying which type of programs and policy is most useful based on psychological theories. this is research and preparation for completing my dissertation in forensic psychology

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...d to them and they learn it via their experiences. A stressful environment wherein aggression is rewarded coupled with a value system that goes against this arouses some to turn to aggression as it becomes exciting, and a learned behavior that becomes their choice. Differential association, learning a criminal subculture - all these contribute to the development of a deviant personality.
3. Nature-nurture theory - some theorists hold that crime, especially aggressive are committed in the majority by individuals with low IQ. This theory however proposes that intelligence is not just an innate phenomenon - it is nurtured and embedded, even learned. Thus people who grew up in supportive environments, especially during childhood where they have quality parental bonds and high level of intellectual stimulation with good peer-groups and are exposed to good schools develop personalities that are deviance-averse as it instils in them social and normative controls allowing them to prosper in society.
4. Gendered Pathways theory - this theory according to Barlow (2014), "is important not only because it explains gender differences in crime, but also differences within women." According to her, women have 5 paths intro criminality - the street, through drugs, through harm (being harmed or harming, i.e. child abuse), through being battered and via economic offending.

According to Jespersen (2006), "In the past, we have considered male and female inmates to have similar treatment needs, but as we become aware of the increasing numbers and differing needs of female offenders we must re-evaluate available treatment programs and begin to implement program revisions." In her paper, she suggested a number of areas that are currently the focus in recidivism treatment but are still in need of further revision to make them more effective in fighting female recidivism. 3 of them are as follows:
1. Substance Abuse and Drug Dependency - According to Jespersen (2006), "women often have a significantly greater number of problems and they are much more likely to recidivate. One important criterion of substance abuse programs is that they combine education and treatment issues into each program. The combination of treatment with education produces more effective programs with more successful outcomes." The issue is that if feedback from treatment programs are not monitored or given the analysis it consistently requires to be effective for the purpose of amendment, then the programs will not achieve the desired effects especially since drugs are a pathway into crime (Barlow, 2014).
2. Parenting and ...