Management's Roles and Responsibilities

What are management's roles and responsibilities in decision implementation? What factors affect decision implementation? How should these factors be addressed in order to assure the effectiveness of the decision?

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...te effect in the first set of data or other information is termed Primacy effect.

10. Repetition bias - A willingness to believe what we have been told most often and by the greatest number of different of sources.
11. Anchoring and adjustment - Decisions are unduly influenced by initial information that shapes our view of subsequent information.
12. Group think - Peer pressure to conform to the opinions held by the group.
13. Source credibility bias - We reject something if we have a bias against the person, organization, or group to which the person belongs: We are inclined to accept a statement by someone we like.
14. Incremental decision making and escalating commitment - We look at a decision as a small step in a process and this tends to perpetuate a series of similar decisions.

15. Inconsistency - The unwillingness to apply the same decision criteria in similar situations.
16. Attribution asymmetry - We tend to attribute our success to our abilities and talents, but we attribute our failures to bad luck and external factors. We attribute other's success to good luck, and their failures to their mistakes.
17. Role fulfillment (Self Fulfilling Prophecy) - We conform to the decision making expectations that others have of someone in our position.
18. Underestimating uncertainty and the illusion of control - We tend to underestimate future uncertainty because we tend to believe we have more control over events than we really do. We believe we have control to minimize potential problems in our decisions.
19. Faulty generalizations - In order to simplify an extremely complex world, we tend to group things and people. These simplifying generalizations can bias decision making processes.
20. Ascription of causality - We tend to ascribe causation even when the evidence only suggests correlation. Just because birds fly to the equatorial regions when the trees lose their leaves, does not mean that the birds migrate because the trees lose their leaves (see others at http://www.12manage.com/description_cognitive_bias.html).

3. How should these factors be addressed in order to assure the effectiveness of the decision?

These factors can be addressed in several ways. Mangers can do the following:

* Use your ...